A mutualism is a cooperative association between individuals of different species. A mutualism may also be a symbiosis. Fungi are commonly involved in both mutualism and symbiosis, and interactions and the roles of mutualisms in ecology are targets of our research.
Richard F, L Glass, A Pringle. 2012. Cooperation among germinating spores facilitates the growth of the fungus Neurospora crassa. Biology Letters 8:419-422 [download]
Wolfe BE, A Pringle. 2011. Geographically structured host specificity is caused by the range expansions and host shifts of a symbiotic fungus. The ISME Journal 4:745-755 [download]
Roper, M, A Seminara, MM Bandi, A Cobb, HR Dillard, A Pringle. 2010. Dispersal of fungal spores on a cooperatively generated wind. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). 107(41): 17474-17479 [download]
Pringle, A. 2009. Quick Guide: Mycorrhizal networks. Current Biology 19(18): R838-R839. [download]
Spores of arbuscular
mycorrhizal fungi from
a North Carolina field.